Sabtu, 17 Maret 2012

Produk Alami 8 - Natural Product - 次级代谢产物 - 次級代謝產物 - Metabolit sekunder 2 (Secondary Metabolite)



PULIH MARI BALI WUTUH PURNA WALUYA JATI
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Unlike primary metabolites, absence of secondary metabolites does not result in immediate death, but rather in long-term impairment of the organism's survivability, fecundity, or aesthetics, or perhaps in no significant change at all. Secondary metabolites are often restricted to a narrow set of species within a phylogenetic group. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defense against herbivory and other interspecies defenses. Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs.

Categories
Most of the secondary metabolites of interest to humankind fit into categories which classify secondary metabolites based on their biosynthetic origin. Since secondary metabolites are often created by modified primary metabolite synthases, or "borrow" substrates of primary metabolite origin, these categories should not be interpreted as saying that all molecules in the category are secondary metabolites (for example the steroid category), but rather that there are secondary metabolites in these categories.

Small "small molecules"
Alkaloids (usually a small, heavily derivatized amino acid):
  • Hyoscyamine, present in Datura stramonium
  • Atropine, present in Atropa belladonna, Deadly nightshade
  • Cocaine, present in Erythroxylon coca the Coca plant
  • Scopolamine, present in the Solanaceae (nightshade) plant family
  • Codeine and Morphine, present in Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy
  • Tetrodotoxin, a microbial product in Fugu and some salamanders
  • Vincristine & Vinblastine, mitotic inhibitors found in the Rosy Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)
Fugu - 河豚 - 河魨 - 河鲀 - ふぐ料理(ふぐりょうり) adalah hidangan khas Jepang yang dibuat dari sejenis ikan buntel (biasanya spesies Takifugu, Lagocephalus, atau Sphoeroides) atau ikan landak (dari genus Diodon). Karena ikan buntel beracun, hanya koki terlatih yang boleh mempersiapkan hidangan ini.
 紅鰭多紀魨
Takifugu rubripes
Kandungan racun ikan buntel terdapat di hati, kelenjar gonad, dan kulit. Koki harus mempersiapkan hidangan ini sedemikian rupa agar sedikit racun tercampur ke dalam hidangan. Kandungan racun yang kecil ini memberi rasa nikmat di mulut dan membuat fugu sangat mahal. Namun bila dimakan terlalu banyak, racun ini akan membuat otot kaku sehingga bila tidak ditangani korban akan meninggal karena tidak dapat bernapas.
Terpenoids (come from semiterpene oligomerization):
  • Azadirachtin, (Neem tree)
  • Artemisinin, present in Artemisia annua Chinese wormwood
  • tetrahydrocannabinol, present in Cannabis
  • Steroids (Terpenes with a particular ring structure)
    • Saponins (plant steroids, often glycosylated)
Glycosides (heavily modified sugar molecules):
  • Nojirimycin
  • Glucosinolates
Natural phenols:
  • Resveratrol
Phenazines:
  • Pyocyanin
  • Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (and derivatives)
Big "small molecules", produced by large, modular, "molecular factories"
Polyketides:
  • Erythromycin
  • Discodermolide
Fatty acid synthase products :
  • FR-900848
  • U-106305
  • phloroglucinols
Nonribosomal peptides:
  • Vancomycin
  • Thiostrepton
  • Ramoplanin
  • Teicoplanin
  • Gramicidin
  • Bacitracin
Hybrids of the above three:
  • Epothilone
  • Polyphenols
Non-"small molecules" - DNA, RNA, ribosome, or polysaccharide "classical" biopolymers
Ribosomal peptides:
  • Microcin-J25

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