Minggu, 26 Februari 2012

Medicus Curat — Natura Sanat 7 - Hippocrates (c. 460 BC - 377 BC) Vita brevis, ars longa



PULIH MARI BALI WUTUH PURNA WALUYA JATI
Vita brevis, ars longa
Ars longa, vita brevis are the first two lines of a Latin translation of an aphorism by Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. The words are commonly translated in English as art is long, life is short. The full text in Latin is:
Ars longa, vita brevis, occasio praeceps, experimentum periculosum, iudicium difficile.
In this commonly found Latin translation, the first two statements have been switched from the Greek original.
The full text is often rendered in English as:
[The] art is long, life is short, opportunity fleeting, experiment dangerous, judgment difficult.
The most common and significant caveat in this translation is that "art" (Latin: ars, Ancient Greek: τέχνη (techne)) is interpreted as "technique, craft" (as in The Art of War), not "fine art", Hippocrates being a doctor and this being the start of a medical text. The following line "The physician must not only be prepared to do what is right himself, but also to make the patient, the attendants, and externals cooperate," makes the medical context clear.
Life is short, and Art long; the crisis fleeting; experience perilous, and decision difficult. The physician must not only be prepared to do what is right himself, but also to make the patient, the attendants, and externals cooperate.
(19th century translation) Aphorisms (Hippocrates) Section 1:1

Life is short, and the Art long; the occasion fleeting; experience fallacious; and judgment difficult. The physician must not only be prepared to do what is right himself, but also to make the patient, the attendants, and the externals cooperate.
(Francis Adams) Aphorisms (Hippocrates) Section 1:1
Life is short, science is long; opportunity is elusive, experiment is dangerous, judgement is difficult. It is not enough for the physician to do what is necessary, but the patient and the attendants must do their part as well, and circumstances must be favourable.
(G. E. R. Lloyd) Aphorisms (Hippocrates) Section 1:1
In the Adams translation, the "Art", always with an capital 'A', refers to medicine — the art of medicine. In the Lloyd text, the 'Art of medicine' becomes 'science'. In either case, the first clause of the first aphorism seems to say that the lifespan of a physician does not suffice for learning the Art of medicine, all of its science. The implication would seem to exhort awareness to physicians that they cannot expect learn all of medicine in a lifetime, an exhortation to humility and avoidance of overconfidence. Can any physician even two and a half millennia later deny the aphorism, especially in respect of the enormous amount and intricate complexity of the knowledge base of medicine in the early 21st century. Perhaps the complete Art of medicine will always overwhelm any one physician's lifetime of learning and practice.

Sherwin Nuland puts it this way:
Although life expectancy is currently well more than twice what it was during the golden age of Greece, it will never be endowed with years enough for anyone to master the vast expanse of medical knowledge, or even that part of it sufficient for an individual doctor to care for all of his patients.
The aphorism continues with the occasion fleeting, alternatively opportunity
is elusive, generally interpreted as indicating the need for timely diagnosis to
achieve the best results of treatment — a narrow window of opportunity.
[E]xperience fallacious, or experiment [in the sense of experience] is dangerous, seems to warn of misinterpreting the patient's symptoms and signs by relying on experience that might apply generally but not to the specific patient at hand owing to that patient's particular circumstances, internal or external, physiological or psychological. Sherwin Nuland applies that to the non-personal 'experience' that statistics offers, unless it takes into consideration individual variability and the factors that go into generating it.
[J]udgment is difficult seems to follow given that life is short and the art long, and that experience of other cases cannot always be counted as reliable when applied to an individual patient at hand.

http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/hippocrates
The Latin is more clearly recognizable, but less idiomatic, using English terms descended from the Latin:
Art [is] long, vitality [is] brief, occasion precipitous, experiment perilous, judgment difficult.

Greek form
 
Its original form in Hippocrates' work Aphorisms (sect. I, no. 1) is:
Ὁ βίος βραχύς, ἡ δὲ τέχνη μακρή, ὁ δὲ καιρὸς ὀξύς, ἡ δὲ πεῖρα σφαλερή, ἡ δὲ κρίσις χαλεπή.
  
In transliteration:
Ho bios brakhys, hê de tekhnê makrê, ho de kairos oxys, hê de peira sphalerê, hê de krisis khalepê.

The Greek text, accordingly, is generally rendered in English as:
Life is short, [the] art long, opportunity fleeting, experiment fallible, judgment difficult.

Related sayings

Consider also Chaucer's “Life is so short, and the craft takes so long to learn” (from Parlement of Foules). 

Also, consider the ancient Jewish Rabbi Tarfon (c. 100 CE), who was known to say, "The day is short, the labor vast, the workers lazy, the reward great, the Master urgent." (Avot 2:20)
Pirkei Avot (Hebrew: פרקי אבות‎), which translates to English as Chapters of the Fathers is a compilation of the ethical teachings and maxims of the Rabbis of the Mishnaic period. Because of its contents, it is also called Ethics of the Fathers. The teachings of Pirkei Avot appear in the Mishnaic tractate of Avot, the second-to-last tractate in the order of Nezikin in the Talmud. Pirkei Avot is unique in that it is the only tractate of the Talmud dealing solely with ethical and moral principles; there is little or no halacha found in Pirkei Avot.
The time for action is now"If not now, when?" (1:14)
"The main thing is not study, but doing." (1:17)
"Do not say 'I will study when I have the time', for perhaps you will never have time." (2:5)
"The day is short, the labor vast, the toilers idle, the reward great, and the Master of the house is insistent." (2:20)
"It is not incumbent upon you to complete the work, but neither are you at liberty to desist from it" (2:21) 

Latine primus omnium nobis cognitorum Lucius Annaeus Seneca citavit, qui sic oratione obliqua scripsit: "Inde illa maximi medicorum exclamatio est, vitam brevem esse, longam artem". (Seneca, Dialogi 10.1.2[De brevitate vitae (quo in scripto Seneca exponit quamque vitae partem satis bonam esse, dummodo sapienter degatur)]
In versione corporis Hippocratici Latina aphorismus sic redditur:
Vita brevis, ars longa, occasio praeceps, experimentum periculosum, iudicium difficile.
Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger - Lucius Annaeus Seneca minor - often known simply as Seneca; ca. 4 BC – 65 AD)
was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. While he was later forced to commit suicide for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero, the last of the Julio-Claudian emperors, he may have been innocent. His father was Seneca the Elder (Marco Annaeo Seneca et Helvia) and his elder brother was Gallio.
Ancient bust of Seneca, part of a double herm (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Maior pars mortalium, Pauline, de naturae malignitate conqueritur, quod in exiguum aevi gignamur, quod haec tam velociter, tam rapide dati nobis temporis spatia decurrant, adeo ut exceptis admodum paucis ceteros in ipso vitae apparatu vita destituat. Nec huic publico, ut opinantur, malo turba tantum et imprudens volgus ingemuit; clarorum quoque virorum hic affectus querellas evocavit. Inde illa maximi medicorum exclamatio est: “vitam brevem esse, longam artem”; inde Aristotelis cum rerum natura exigentis minime conveniens sapienti viro lis: “aetatis illam animalibus tantum indulsisse, ut quina aut dena saecula educerent, homini in tam multa ac magna genito tanto citeriorem terminum stare”. Non exiguum temporis habemus, sed multum perdidimus. Satis longa vita et in maximarum rerum consummationem large data est, si tota bene collocaretur; sed ubi per luxum ac neglegentiam diffl uit, ubi nulli bonae rei inpenditur, ultima demum necessitate cogente quam ire non intelleximus transisse sentimus.

(Seneca, Dialogi 10.1.2) [De brevitate vitae (quo in scripto Seneca exponit quamque vitae partem satis bonam esse, dummodo sapienter degatur)]
In dessen Schrift „de brevitate vitae" („Über die Kürze des Lebens") [De brevitate vitae (quo in scripto Seneca exponit quamque vitae partem satis bonam esse, dummodo sapienter degatur)] heißt es in 1,1:

Der größere Teil der sterblichen Menschen, Paulinus, beklagt sich über die Mißgunst der Natur, dass wir nur für eine kurze Lebenszeit geboren werden, und dass so schnell und stürmisch die uns gegebene Lebensfrist abläuft, und zwar so, dass mit Ausnahme weniger das Leben die übrigen bereits bei der Vorbereitung des Lebens im Stich lässt. Und über dieses allgemeine Übel, wie man meint, seufzt nicht nur die große Masse und der unwissende Pöbel.

(Seneca, Dialogi 10.1.1) [De brevitate vitae (quo in scripto Seneca exponit quamque vitae partem satis bonam esse, dummodo sapienter degatur)]
Anglice partim a Galfrido Chaucer [Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400)] versus est:
The lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne,Th'assay so hard, so sharp the conquering. (The Parlement of Foules 1-3)
Theodisce prima verba ab Iohanne Goethe [Ioannes Volfgangus Goethius or Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749  – 22 March 1832)] in ludo Faust reddita sunt:
Ach Gott! Die Kunst ist lang!Und kurz ist unser Leben. (Faust 1.558-559)

艺术是永恒的,生命是短暂的。
藝術是永恆的,生命是短暫的。
Yìshù shì yǒnghéng de, shēngmìng shì duǎnzàn de.

我相信,若以岁月而论,我的生命是短暂的,然而,若以体验、欢愉、爱情和成就而论,我的生命又是充实的;我身后的亲人们,我的母亲、兄弟、妻子、孩子以及挚友,我自身的永恒将留存在他们的记忆中。 

我相信,若以歲月而論,我的生命是短暫的,然而,若以體驗、歡愉、愛情和成就而論,我的生命又是充實的;我身後的親人們,我的母親、兄弟、妻子、孩子以及摯友,我自身的永恆將留存在他們的記憶中。


Wǒ xiāngxìn, ruò yǐ suìyuè ér lùn, wǒ de shēngmìng shì duǎnzàn de, rán'ér, ruò yǐ tǐyàn, huān yú, àiqíng hé chéngjiù ér lùn, wǒ de shēngmìng yòu shì chōngshí de; wǒ shēnhòu de qīnrénmen, wǒ de mǔqīn, xiōngdì , Qīzi, hái zǐ yǐjí zhìyǒu, wǒ zìshēn de yǒnghéng jiāng liúcún zài tāmen de jìyì zhōng.


I believe that though my life is short in years , it was full in experience , joy , love and accomplishment ; that my own immortality will reside in the memories of my loved ones left behind , mother , brother , wife , children , dear friends.


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