Selasa, 28 Februari 2012

NUTRACEUTICAL 6 - Nutraceutical Product



PULIH MARI BALI WUTUH PURNA WALUYA JATI
Nutraceutical Product



GARCINIA 藤黄属 Appetite control, weight management
Garcinia cambogia
DESCRIPTION
Garcinia is a medium to large evergreen tree. The fruit may resemble a small yellow or reddish pumpkin, or it may have a unique purple color. It has a distinctive sweet acid taste. When fully ripe it is too acid to eat fresh by itself. (It contains 16-30% (_)-hydroxycitric acid by dry weight, as well as other fruit acids.) It is used as a spice either, sprinkled over food, or dried and used in curries in place of limes or tamarinds. Its addition is said to make the food more "filling and satisfying."
Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a derivative of citric acid that is found in a variety of tropical plants including Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa. Laboratory and animal studies of HCA have produced results that indicate a potential for modulation of lipid metabolism; consequently HCA is an ingredient in some weight loss products and dietary supplements. However, a clinical study has demonstrated that HCA has no effect in terms of weight loss or reduction of fat mass.

One isomer of HCA, known as (2S,3R)-HCA, inhibits pancreatic alpha-amylase and intestinal alpha-glucosidase, leading to a reduction in carbohydrate metabolism in vitro. In a study in Zucker rats, which are genetically predisposed to obesity, Garcinia cambogia extract containing HCA showed that high doses led to significant suppression of epididymal fat accumulation, but also caused potent testicular atrophy and toxicity. However, this study has been criticized because of possible contamination of the HCA used and various design flaws. 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroxycitric_acid
INDICATIONS
One researcher tried the fruit and said that "as little as one gram before each meal was extremely effective in reducing my own appetite and weight, and resulted in a definite sustained increase in energy and a weight loss for me of about one pound per day without any dieting. However, my results may not be typical." Significant research has been done on the effects of the purified active ingredient, (_)-HCA, in its sodium salt form, is considerably more powerful than the crude powder and has important additional functions. (_)-HCA has been shown in animal experiments to suppress both appetite and the formation of fats and cholesterol in the liver. In addition it results in an increase in LDL receptor activity in liver cells that can pull LDL cholesterol out of circulation. If further research shows that other mechanisms do not increase LDL production enough to compensate, then (_)-HCA is likely to be adopted as a cholesterol-lowering agent. There is no reduction in protein or muscle tissue to detract from the reduction of circulating fatty acids and total lipid levels in the body. Furthermore, there is an increase in glycogen production that may be the cause of the perceived energy increase mentioned above. Finally, (_)-HCA does not speed up metabolism or produce the side-effects of amphetamines, and does not create strong aversions to foods. In animal studies, (_)-HCA retained its full effectiveness in reducing food intake for one month of sustained use, and for 80 days of interrupted use.

PHYSIOLOGY
It is uncertain how (_)-HCA reduces appetite. Possibilities include feedback controls tied to glycogen and glucose levels in the liver (glucose sensitive fibers have been found in the vagus nerve within the liver). In experiments with Carbon-14-labeled (_)-HCA, C-14 was found in the brain and in the hypothalmus, the seat of appetite regulation. A mechanism of action in the hypothalmus has not yet been established. Studies show that (_)-HCA reduces fatty acid and cholesterol production in the liver by inhibiting the citrate cleavage enzyme (ATP: citrate oxalo-acetate lyase). This enzyme is required to cleave excess citrate into oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of 2 carbon units required for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis outside the mitochondria. (_)-HCA does not act inside the mito chondria, so normal energy production in the Krebs', or citric acid, cycle is not interrupted. The decrease in carbon unit availability for cholesterol synthesis results in increased activity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. The increased LDL-receptor activity results in significant increases in the amount of LDL cholesterol that is bound to the cells and degraded, reducing the LDL in circulation.

TOXICITY, CAUTIONS & CONTRA-INDICATIONS
Garcinia has been used safely as a food for centuries in many areas of tropical Asia. The acute LD50 values for (_)-hydroxycitrate in mice are: more than 2000 mg/kg (intraperitoneal); and more than 4000 mg/kg (oral). This is equivalent to 200 to 400 grams orally, or 7 to 14 ounces (depending on body weight), for adult humans.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE
250 mg of (_)-hydroxycitrate (the active ingredient), 1/2 to 1 hour before each meal (45 to 75 minutes for tablets), 3 times a day. Adjust extract quantity depending on potency.

GRAVIOLA 刺果番荔枝 - From small evergreen trees, the thick, shiny leaves are used against diabetes and as a sedative and anti-spasmodic in Peru. Elsewhere in the Amazon jungle, the leaves are used to treat, cleanse and support the liver, treat catarrh, and are considered anthelmintic (destructive to worms), antidiarrheic, anti-asthmatic and digestive.
Annona muricata
Common Name: Graviola
Botanical Name: Annona muricata
Growing Area: : Caribbean and Central and South America

General Info
Graviola, also known as Soursop, can be found in such exotic places as the Amazon jungle and the Caribbean islands. Graviola has long been used around the world to support general well-being. And in recent decades, scientific research has uncovered even more exciting potential health benefits from Graviola.
The Graviola tree has large, dark green leaves and can grow to heights of 15 to 18 feet. The green, spiky, heart-shaped Graviola fruit has a unique flavor combining tart citrus notes with a sweet creaminess. The soft white flesh of this delicious fruit is favored for making juices, sherbets and other tasty desserts.

Nutrients & Applications
The Graviola fruit is high in carbohydrates, particularly fructose. It also contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1, and vitamin B2. Scientists have been studying the properties of Graviola since the 1940s, and have discovered a unique set of phytochemicals called annonaceous acetogenins, which are only found in the annonaceae family (to which Graviola belongs). Among other things, these valuable phytochemicals have been found to have antiparasitic, insecticidal, and antimicrobial activities.
Graviola may aid with maintaining healthy digestion and normal body temperature. It is also known for its tranquilizing and sedative properties. Graviola leaves contain natural compounds that support the immune system and may promote healthy cell growth. Graviola may also help maintain normal blood pressure. 

LECITHIN - a look at the health benefits of Lecithin and its role in human nutrition 
Also Known as Phosphatidyl Choline (PC)
Lesitin, yang juga dikenal dengan fosfatidil kolina.
Lesitin (bahasa Yunani: lekithos - λεκιθος) adalah istilah yang biasanya digunakan sebagai sinonim untuk fosfatidil kolina, suatu fosfolipid yang menjadi komponen utama fraksi fosfatida pada ekstrak kuning telur atau kacang kedelai yang diisolasi secara mekanik, maupun kimiawi dengan menggunakan heksana.

Lesitin juga merupakan istilah sinonim dari senyawa organik lain yang sedikit berbeda:
Fosfatidil inositol
Fosfatidil etanolamina
Dalam aplikasinya, lesitin berada dalam kuning telur dan paling sering digunakan sebagai agen emulsifier yang dapat mencampur minyak dan air, seperti pada mayones. Hal tersebut dapat terjadi karena lesitin mempunyai kepala yang bersifat hidrofilik dan ekor yang bersifat hidrofobik.
Lesitin pada telur didominasi oleh kandungan fosfatidil kolina yang tinggi, gliserolfosfolipid, rantai panjang asam lemak tak jenuh, asam arakidonat, dan kandungan DHA yang tidak terdapat pada sumber lesitin lainya (seperti kacang-kacangan).
Lesitin secara komersil bisa diperoleh dengan kemurnian tinggi untuk aditif pangan ataupun tujuan medis. Selain itu, lesitin juga diketahui dapat membantu stabilitas dari mayones serta membuat mayones terlihat lebih tebal.
About Lecithin
Lecithin, or phosphatidyl choline, is a fatty substance called a phospholipid. It can be found in foods like soybeans, liver, oatmeal, cabbage, and cauliflower. This non-toxic substance is often used in foods and pharmaceuticals as an emulsifier or lubricant. Lecithin is composed of choline, inositol, and other substances, and it is a major component of all living cells. Lecithin's role, among other activities, is to regulate the nutrients entry and exit from the cells.

Nutritional Role of Lecithin
If one has an adequate diet, Lecithin is produced by the liver and is a key building block of cell membranes. It's many benefits may include lowering cholesterol and triglycerides, improving circulation, and helping with liver cirrhosis. Since Lecithin is a major source of choline, it is important to brain function and may reduce the progression of dementia and memory problems.

Health Benefits of Lecithin in Human Nutrition
  • For cellular health
  • For cardiovasuclar system
  • For memory and cognitive function
  • For immune system
  • For liver function
Usage Guidelines for Lecithin
There are no known adverse affects or toxicities. Using Lecithin in large amounts may cause gastrointestinal upset.

Lecithin Facts for Informational Purposes Only
Readers should not use this information for self-diagnosis or self-treatment, but should always consult a medical professional regarding any medical problems and before undertaking any major dietary changes. This information is not meant to be substituted for medical advice.


Health & Wellness Library:  Index of Nutraceuticals Health Benefits
An informational resource about the health benefits of nutraceuticals in human nutrition

Nutraceutical Health Benefits Facts for Informational Purposes Only
 
Readers should not use this information for self-diagnosis or self-treatment, but should always consult a medical professional regarding any medical problems and before undertaking any major dietary changes. This information is not meant to be substituted for medical advice.


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1 komentar:

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