Jumat, 24 Februari 2012

Medicus Curat — Natura Sanat 1

Medicus Curat — Natura Sanat
  1. Medicus curat, natura sanat. Tabib/dokter mengobati, Alam menyembuhkan.
  2. Medicus curat, natura sanat, adalah sebuah kalimat dalam bahasa Latin yang artinya adalah "Seorang dokter mengobati, (tetapi) alam menyehatkan." 
  3. Medicus curat, natura sanat. O médico cura, a natureza sara (Portugis)
  4. Natura sanat, medicus curat morbos. O médico trata das doenças, a natureza cura. (Portugis)
  5. Georg Groddeck (13 October 1866 Bad Kösen – 10 June 1934 Knonau, near Zurich).
    In 1913 he published Nasamecu. Der gesunde und der kranke Mensch, where "nasamecu" stands for the Latin motto “Natura sanat, medicus curat.” Here Groddeck offers his understanding of what happens to the bones, muscles, the importance of food, talk about blood circulation, the eyes, the whole human body and what happens to this body when it obeys the orders of Isso (unconscious). According to these orders, a person becomes "healthy" or "sick.
  6. Medicus curat, natura sanat. Der Arzt hilft, die Natur heilt (Jerman)
  7. Medicus curat, natura sanat. The doctor cares [for his patient], and nature heals [him or her].
  8. Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos (Greek: Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; c. 460 BC – c. 370 BC) .
    Hippocratic medicine was humble and passive. The therapeutic approach was based on "the healing power of nature" ("vis medicatrix naturae" in Latin). According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself (physis).
  9. Medicus curat, natura sanat. The physician treats, nature cures.
  10. Medicus curat, natura sanat. "De dokter zorgt voor zijn patiënt, maar de natuur geneest hem"
  11. Medicus curat, natura sanat. "The doctor cares [for his patient], nature heals [him]." or "Doctor cures, nature saves"
  12. Medicus curat, natura sanat. (메디쿠스 쿠라트, 나투라 사나트) 의사는 치료하고, 자연은 치유한다. 
  13. Natura sanat, medicus curat. природа исцеляет, врач лечит (Rusia)
  14. Natura sanat, medicus curat. Lekarz leczy, natura uzdrawia. (Polandia)
  15. Natura sanat, medicus curat morbos. Лечит болезни врач, но излечивает природа. (Rusia)

Medicus curat, natura sanat bedeutet sinngemäß "Der Arzt behandelt, die Natur heilt". Der Ausspruch stammt aus dem antiken Textkorpus, das mit dem Arzt Hippokrates von Kos in Verbindung gebracht wird. Der Aphorismus sollte Folgendes deutlich machen:
  • Die eigentliche Heilung geschieht im Patienten. Die therapeutischen Maßnahmen sollen seine Fähigkeiten und seinen Willen zu gesunden unterstützen.
  • Es gibt einen natürlichen Verlauf der jeweiligen Krankheit, der seine Zeit benötigt. Auch hieran muss sich die Therapie ausrichten. Ein falscher Therapieversuch kann die natürlichen Heilkräfte schwächen.
  • Ein guter Arzt berücksichtigt bei seinem Handeln die natürlichen Abläufe.
  • Medizin war im antiken Verständnis eine Heilkunst.
Es gibt Stimmen, die in der einfachen und allgegenwärtigen Verfügbarkeit von medizinischen Dienstleistungen und pharmazeutischen Produkten und das übergroße Vertrauen auf Machbarkeit in der westlichen Gesellschaft das medicus curat, natura sanat oft außer Acht gelassen sehen. Auch kann man dies als eine Begleiterscheinung der Medikalisierung seit dem 18. Jahrhundert begreifen. Thomas Mann griff diesen Aphorismus in seinem Roman Der Zauberberg auf.

Medicus curat, natura sanat
In English: A doctor administers the cure; nature does the healing.

I thought this would be a good follow-up to yesterday's "medical" proverb. Today's proverb is based on a simple parallel structure: on the one hand there is the medicus, the medical doctor, who administers the cure and takes care of the patient, curat, but it isnatura, nature, who actually makes the patient healthy, sanat.

A fuller form of this proverb is medicus curat, natura sanat morbos, where the verbs curat and sanat are given an explicit object: morbos, sicknesses.

There are some good etymological items to notice in these two Latin verbs. The Latin verb curare means to take care of, in the sense of being concerned for something. This is indeed where we get the English word "cure," which is generally used in a medical context (although "manicure" and "pedicure" are admittedly not medical procedures!), but the Latin word has a range of meaning that extends far beyond the medical context. You can get a sense of the broader meaning of the Latin cura, if you look at some other English words derived from this same root, such as the "curator" who takes care of things. Even the English word "curious" is derived from this root, because a curious person is concerned with things - especially things that other people might not pay attention to at all. The English word "secure" is a person who has no cares or concerns, from the Latin se-curus, without care.

The other Latin verb in today's proverb, sanare, means "to make whole, make healthy," from the adjectival root sanus, meaning "healthy" and also "sane, rational." You can see both meanings of the san- root at work in English derivatives. When people go to a "sanatorium," they are hoping to get well and healthy (and hopefully everything is appropriate "sanitized" at the sanatorium), but someone who is "insane" is suffering specifically from mental illness.

So, hoping that everyone is feeling both sane and secure, here is today's proverb read out loud: 

1087. Medicus curat, natura sanat.

Medicus curat, natura sanat

My philosophy about health and medicine:
An old Latin proverb says: "medicus curat, natura sanat" which means ‘the doctor cares [for his patient], nature heals [him]’.

As a doctor I have given the Hippocratic oath. Which in essence is a promise to do no harm.        

The reason why do no harm is the cornerstone of Hippocratic oath is that as doctors we have great influence over people's health. Unfortunately our ability to harm is much greater than to heal. When a person is ill, as humans, our innate desire is to do something to make them feel better. This is especially the case when this person is our child. The discomfort that we see is not the illness itself but rather the symptoms or the way our body responds to the illness. Naturally we tend to try to alleviate these symptoms because we perceive them to be the illness itself. This is when as doctors we have to be very careful. We understand illness differently than the layperson and have to direct our efforts to educating and providing only the treatment that is necessary.

I spend much more time explaining to people why I am not prescribing a medication than actually prescribing one. And this does take more time than just handing over a prescription. More often than not, just waiting and observing the symptoms is better than taking a medication that will obscure the symptoms. Although this method may be more time consuming, it is just one of the ways that I fulfill my oath as a physician and I will not spare any efforts to help parents bring up physically and emotionally healthy children.

Šia teorija Hipokratas sukūrė keturis temperamentų tipus: Cholerikas, Flegmatikas, Sangvinikas, Melancholikas. Hipokrato gydymo metodai:

Primum non nocere is a Latin phrase that means "First, do no harm". The phrase is sometimes recorded as primum nil nocere.
primum non nocere

first, to not harm

A medical precept. Often falsely attributed to the Hippocratic Oath, though its true source is probably a paraphrase from Hippocrates' Epidemics, where he wrote, "Declare the past, diagnose the present, foretell the future; practice these acts. As to diseases, make a habit of two things: to help, or at least to do no harm."
La locuzione latina contraria contrariis curantur (cure contraries by contraries), tradotta letteralmente, significa "curino i contrari con i contrari".

È un principio risalente a Ippocrate e Galeno, che il fondatore dell'omeopatia, Samuel Hahnemann, attribuì come fondamento della medicina convenzionale del XIX secolo coniando il termine allopatia, in contrasto con il principio filosofico del similia similibus curantur che ispirerebbe l'omeopatia.

Etimológicamente, los términos alopatía y homeopatía parecen apropiados para designar la obediencia a dos aforismos griegos que han llegado a nuestra cultura a través de sendas fórmulas latinas:
  • Contraria contrariis curantur, lo contrario se cura con lo contrario, the opposite is cured with the opposite.
  • Similia similibus curantur, lo semejante se cura con lo semejante, the resemblance is cured with the resemblance.
  • Junto a los anteriores existe un tercer aforismo, Aequalia aequalibus curantur, lo igual se cura con lo igual, the equal is cured with the equal.
similia similibus curantur
similia similibus curentur
ähnliches wird ähnliches heilen (Ähnlichkeits-Prinzips) (Similarity principle) 
similar things take care of similar things 
let similar things take care of similar things
"like cures like" and "let like be cured by like"; the first form
("curantur") is indicative, while the second form ("curentur") is subjunctive.
The indicative form is found in Paracelsus (16th century), while the subjunctive
form is said by Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, and is known as the law
of similars.
Aequalia aequalibus curantur

lo igual se cura con lo igual

gleiches wird gleiches heilen (Gleichheits-Prinzip) (Equality principle)

the equal is cured with the equal
contraria contrariis curantur

the opposite is cured with the opposite

First formulated by Hippocrates to suggest that the diseases are cured with contrary remedies. Antonym of similia similibus curantur (the diseases are recovered with similar remedies.)

Medicus curat, natura sanat.
medicus は「医者」を意味する第二変化名詞の単数・主格です。
動詞 curat は、「治療する」という意味の第一変化動詞で単数・三人称・現在の形です。
一方、natura は「自然」を意味する第一変化名詞で、単数・主格の形(辞書の見出し)です。
sanat は「癒す」という意味の第一変化動詞 sano(サーノー)の単数・三人称・現在の形です。

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